The history behind the recording of the music that would ultimately become Miles Davis’ Birth Of The Cool album, released in 1957 by Capitol Records, is fascinating, complex and the subject of some creative confusion, but there is absolutely no doubting the brilliance and the importance of this long-playing record.
In 1947, Miles Davis was playing in Charlie Parker’s quintet, having replaced Dizzy Gillespie, who had left in 1945. Davis recorded with Parker for the Savoy and Dial labels, and his first records released under his own name were recorded in 1947, and were more arranged and rehearsed than Parker’s recordings.
However, Davis was becoming increasingly concerned about tensions within the Parker quintet and in 1948 left to form his own band. At the same time, arranger Gil Evans was holding informal gatherings at his apartment on 55th Street in Manhattan. Evans’ reputation for his orchestration of bebop tunes for the Claude Thornhill Orchestra established his reputation. At these informal gatherings there was much discussion about where jazz was heading, and Evans, for one, thought he knew how to shape its future.
As early as the summer of 1947, Davis and Evans met to talk about creating music together, which lead to a group of like-minded musicians becoming the Miles Davis Nonet, including baritone saxophonist Gerry Mulligan, who had written for Gene Krupa’s orchestra. The group featured two saxophones, four brass and a rhythm section for a total of nine players. Evans and Mulligan spent the winter of 1947/48 working on the project and, according to Mulligan, “We picked instruments [with matching timbres]… and one of each. We had a high section with a trumpet and the alto, we had a middle section with the trombone and the French horn, and a low section with the baritone and tuba. So we had those… basic colours to work with.” The omission of tenor saxophone, seen as a standard jazz instrument, was seen at the time as very unusual.
With Davis and Mulligan taking trumpet and baritone saxophone, aided by Evans they created their perfect band. For alto saxophone they chose Lee Konitz, tuba player Bill Barber and French hornist Sandy Siegelstein (they had been in the Thornhill band), who was later replaced by Junior Collins. Trombonist JJ Johnson was the first choice for the band, but he was heavily committed to Illinois Jacquet’s group, though he did play on the final two sessions. Both bassist Al McKibbon and pianist John Lewis had been members of Dizzy Gillespie’s orchestra, while Miles knew drummer Max Roach from Parker’s quintet.
In September 1948, the nonet opened for Count Basie at the Royal Roost on New York’s Broadway. Mulligan contributed six arrangements, Lewis three, Evans two, and composer John Carisi arranged his own composition, ‘Israel’, for the band. At the Royal Rooste, Mike Zwerin played trombone and former Dizzy Gillespie vocalist Kenny Hagood sang a couple of numbers.
Arranger and Capitol talent scout Pete Rugolo heard the nonet at the Royal Roost and got them into the studio to record. They cut 12 tracks over three sessions that spanned 18 months, with the first taking place on 21 January 1949 at WOR Studios in New York, as did the other two sessions; Davis, Konitz, Mulligan and Barber were the only musicians who played on all three. At the first session, they did four tracks: Mulligan’s ‘Jeru and ‘Godchild’, as well as Lewis’ ‘Move’ and ‘Budo’. For this date, Kai Winding replaced Zwerin on trombone, Al Haig replaced Lewis on piano, and Joe Shulman replaced McKibbon on bass. They are arguably the catchiest numbers of the 12, and Capitol were mindful of the sales potential as they were looking to issue 78rpm records. ‘Move’ and ‘Budo’ were paired on the first release, followed by ‘Jeru’ and ‘Godchild’.
Three months later, on 22 April, the second session included JJ Johnson on trombone, Sandy Siegelstein on French horn, Nelson Boyd on bass, Kenny Clarke on drums, and John Lewis returning to piano. They recorded Mulligan’s ‘Venus De Milo’, Lewis’ ‘Rouge’, Carisi’s ‘Israel’ and ‘Boplicity’. The last two tracks formed the next 78rpm release, followed by ‘Venus De Milo’ and ‘Darn That Dream’, with Hagood on vocals, and which was recorded at the third and final session which took place on 9 March 1950. That session also featured Mulligan’s ‘Darn That Dream’, ‘Rocker’, and ‘Deception’, as well as Evans’ arrangement of Chummy MacGregor’ ‘Moon Dreams’. This time the band featured Gunther Schuller on French horn and Al McKibbon on bass.
In 1954, Capitol released eight of the tracks on a 10” record titled Classics in Jazz: Miles Davis. Then three years later, 11 of the tracks (all except for ‘Darn That Dream’) were released by Capitol as Birth Of The Cool; the final track, ‘Darn That Dream’, was included with the other 11 on a 1971 LP. while the live recordings of the nonet from the Royal Roost were later released as Cool Boppin’. In 1998, Capitol Records released The Complete Birth Of The Cool, which was remastered by engineer Rudy Van Gelder and collected the nonet’s live and studio tracks onto a single CD.
While Miles’ name is on the record, the genius of Gerry Mulligan and Gil Evans is all over this record. It was clearly a collaborative effort with Miles as the enabler, the one that brought them all together. It’s a record full of harmonic surprises, and the effervescence felt by the musicians is palpable. As the introduction on the live material from the Royal Roost says, “this is impressions in modern music”. It sounded very modern then, and it sounds just as modern today. The Birth Of The Cool is an album that should be in every basic jazz library, because it is great music, but it also is a link between the beboppers and the cooler direction that jazz was to take.
The Birth Of The Cool is one of 75 classic albums picked to celebrate the milestone that is Capitol Records’ 75th birthday. Join the celebrations with the Through The Decades playlist, and purchase The Birth Of The Cool here: