Best Eric Dolphy Tracks: 20 Free Jazz Essentials

Eric Dolphy erupted like lightning across the jazz horizon, playing with a startling, jagged, incandescent fire. These are his best tracks.

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Eric Dolphy
Photo: Bill Wagg/Redferns/Getty Images

For a tragically brief period in the early 1960s, Eric Dolphy erupted like lightning across the jazz horizon, playing with a startling, jagged, incandescent fervor that made him immediately recognizable on three separate instruments.

Most lists of Eric Dolphy’s best tracks typically include the rapturous playing on lengthy ensemble works by Charles Mingus, John Coltrane, and Ornette Coleman, along with his own masterpiece, Out To Lunch!, which was recorded just four months before his sudden death from a diabetic coma at the age of 36 in June 1964. These performances were enormously influential in pushing bebop into freer, more avant-garde territory without losing its roots in the music of Charlie Parker and Thelonious Monk. But that tends to obscure the pure heart and soulfulness that pervades Dolphy’s discography.

He issued breathtakingly beautiful and somber performances in both solo and duet settings on alto saxophone, bass clarinet, and flute. And due to his versatility and his signature use of wide intervals and ecstatic, slurred note clusters, he was frequently tapped to put a little daring into jazz standards and add invaluable seasoning to Third Stream jazz-classical music.

Think we’ve missed one of the best Eric Dolphy tracks? Let us know in the comments section, below.

Listen to the best Eric Dolphy tracks on Apple Music and Spotify.

Getting started with Dolphy

Although emblazoned arpeggios were inevitably the trademark of Eric Dolphy’s best tracks, he was masterful enough to render them within a classic bop or songbook context that galvanized their conservative context. Those who have been put off by unfair criticisms of Dolphy “caterwauling,” might want to check out how he spices the ensembles of Chico Hamilton and Oliver Nelson, or the sophisticated hard-bop swagger he fosters in a band he co-led with trumpeter Booker Little – “Fire Waltz,” from their date at the Five Spot in July ’61 is a good example.

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More specifically, listen to how Dolphy rescues the overly artsy intro to the classic Monk tune, “Round Midnight,” with his tart, shimmering alto work on George Russell’s “Ezz-thetic” session from 1961, or the sheer joy of his rapid-fire bop alto jousts with Ken McIntyre on “Curtsy,” from the latter’s album Looking Ahead, a year earlier. Bathe in the way his dulcet bass clarinet adds texture and harmony to John Coltrane’s enduring ballad, “Naima,” on its November 3, 1961, performance contained on the Trane’s “Complete Village Vanguard Sessions.”

Naima (Live At The Village Vanguard/November 3,1961)

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Collaborations with Charles Mingus

The titanic composer and bassist Charles Mingus exerted the greatest influence over Dolphy’s development. Mingus was Dolphy’s longest-lasting and most extensive musical relationship, and the two were most comfortable living on the cusp of musical structure and improvisational freedom. Not coincidentally, some of the hallmarks of Mingus compositions – the driving, leaping, angular rhythms and swooning or beseeching chromatic passages – both informed and catered to Dolphy’s style and virtues.

Dolphy’s first extended stint with Mingus in 1960 inspired both to new heights. The best material from this period can be found on the concert disc Live at Antibes and the studio recording Charles Mingus Presents Charles Mingus. Dolphy is first among equals on the raucous yet taut gospel song, “Wednesday Night Prayer Meeting” from Antibes, and the more reflective “Folk Forms No.1” within a piano-less quartet on the studio date. And both records deliver jaw-dropping interactions between bassist Mingus and bass clarinetist Dolphy on the song “What Love,” which exemplifies their bond.

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After a nearly three-year absence that included celebrated recordings with Coleman and Coltrane, and his own ensembles, Dolphy returned to Mingus in 1963 with more spectacular results. Check how his alto sax solo takes “Hora Decubtis” outside without sacrificing the song’s irresistible swing.

Bold statements on a big canvas

Dolphy’s ascendant profile stemmed from his pervasive role in a turbulent, more unstructured music that was shaking the foundations of bebop much as bop had rattled swing jazz 15 years before. One badge of honor was his inclusion on the Ornette Coleman recording Free Jazz, a “double quartet” playing spontaneous improvisation in November 1960 that, for better or worse, gave the new movement its “free jazz” moniker.

There are a raft of other iconic Dolphy blowing sessions and intrepid forays to the fringes where boppish free jazz resides. The best are lengthy, providing a broad context where each band member could stretch out and propel each other forward. Dolphy’s contributions to some of Coltrane’s most spirited versions of “My Favorite Things,” stand out, with a relatively obscure live version recorded in Hamburg and included on John Coltrane: The European Tours a particularly good example.

Softly As In A Morning Sunrise (Live At The University Of Illinois/1963)

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The knotty but ever-fascinating exchanges between Dolphy (again on bass clarinet) and the then-22-year old pianist Herbie Hancock on the 1928 show tune, “Softly, as in a Morning Sunrise,” from The Illinois Concert in 1963 also deserves mention. And Dolphy’s torrid alto sax homage to Charlie Parker on the sprawling 27-minute “Parkeriana,” from The Great Concert of Charles Mingus, in 1964, belongs on any list of Dolphy’s best tracks.

Intimate duets and solos

Eric Dolphy’s solo and duet recordings are simultaneously thoughtful and soulful, tender and passionate. Dolphy had a special affinity for bass players, and his work on alto with Ron Carter, on flute alongside Chuck Israel, and on bass clarinet with Richard Davis are all worth your time. You’ll find the best tracks among any of the Dolphy-Davis duets, including alternate takes, on Musical Prophet: The Expanded 1963 Studio Sessions. Pressed to name one, go for the original, aptly named, “Alone Together.”

God Bless The Child (Live At The University Of Illinois/1963)

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It seems fitting to select a solo piece on each of Dolphy’s three primary instruments. For bass clarinet, it has to be “God Bless the Child,” a Dolphy staple throughout his career. (The one from The Illinois Concert seems especially durable.)

The longest of the three renditions of the 1936 ballad “Love Me” is just 3:40, but Dolphy (on alto) packs it with slippery quicksilver phrases, mixed with dynamic intensity and well-chosen pauses to enhance its swing.

As for the solo flute, Dolphy has a couple of stellar versions of “Glad To Be Unhappy,” but nothing can top the heartrending performance of “You Don’t Know What Love Is,” that he performed the same month that he died, which appears on the record, Eric Dolphy—Last Date.

Out To Lunch!

For the vast majority of Dolphy’s too-brief career, his most vivid and important recordings were usually under the aegis of another bandleader. That changed with Out To Lunch!, his lone album for the fabled Blue Note label. Perhaps no other record has more effectively utilized the elastic guard rails of bebop with the liberating quest to explore new musical territory. Belatedly, Dolphy had discovered his sweet spot. Dolphy loved the brusque élan of Mingus, the inscrutable mischief of Coleman, and the magnetic passion of Coltrane. On Out To Lunch!, he tapped all of these things and crystallized his own distinctive identity.

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It helps that his songwriting had grown increasingly sophisticated. (“Mandrake,” from the previous summer, most accessible on Musical Prophet, may be the best harbinger of what was to come.) And he was both prescient and lucky that the band he assembled generated such splendid synergy. The vibes of Bobby Hutcherson floated and flurried with polytonal, flexibly tensile give-and-take that a pianist couldn’t match, creating a springboard for Dolphy.

Bassist Richard Davis retained his telepathic connection with the leader and teamed with a teenaged Tony Williams who had already started changing the face of jazz drumming with Sam Rivers, Jackie McLean, and Miles Davis. And trumpeter Freddie Hubbard nearly held his own in the front line beside Dolphy in full flower on all three instruments.

Something Sweet, Something Tender (Remastered 1998/Rudy Van Gelder Edition)

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The Monk tribute “Hat and Beard,” hits the bullseye on Monk’s angular simplicity and irresistible lyricism via the songcraft and Dolphy opening bass clarinet solo. He stays on the low-toned horn for the well-named, “Something Sweet, Something Tender,” provides scintillating flute on “Gazzelloni,” and injects wrings out the alto sax on the title track and “Straight Up and Down,” with darts, skids, and slurs that variously lope, compress, quicken, and swing into space.

The unconventional flair of Out To Lunch! makes it an acquired taste that rewards repeated listening. Its unique mélange of arresting attributes doesn’t add up easily. But it is the opposite of “anti-jazz,” the epithet most often thrown at Dolphy and other avant-garde jazz musicians. It builds on the most valuable and adventuresome elements of the jazz tradition to make something new and personal – indeed, you can hear how the stepping stones in Dolphy’s development lead up to this recording. It is a tragedy that we all were never able to discover what came next from Eric Dolphy.

Think we missed one of Eric Dolphy’s best tracks? Let us know in the comments below.



  1. Martin A Miller

    June 21, 2020 at 4:54 pm

    Thank you! And, agree with all of the above, but think a couple stand out performances should be mentioned.

    For example the spectacular playing on Oliver Nelson’s “Straight Ahead”. The bass clarinet workout on “Ralph’s New Blues”, and the alto on the title track are extraordinary. Then, from “Far Cry”, the shimmering beauty of “It’s Magic” is not to be missed. And, Dolphy’s take on Monk’s “Epistrophy” on “The Last Date” recording is amazing. Lastly, Dolphy’s playing on Andrew Hill’s “Point of Departure” is terrific.

    • Frederick Stark

      September 12, 2020 at 7:07 pm

      Dr. Andrew Hill performed the same compositions from the “Point of Departure” album at a live concert at Lincoln Center outside in the 1990s ! I had the honor of meeting him after the concert !

  2. Hub Vreuls

    June 22, 2020 at 1:25 pm

    Ok but you forgot e.g.
    God bless the child
    Hi Fly
    Come Sunday
    and every solo with Trane (Spiritual!) or Mingus !
    Eric forever❤️

  3. Noble watson

    June 25, 2020 at 7:39 pm

    Love almost forgot about a Virtouso. I had purchased @ The Five Spot& Out to Lunch LP’s unaware of his collaborations. Will dig Further. Underrated but Immortal❤️❤️❤️

  4. Robert J

    September 5, 2020 at 10:31 pm

    Eric was a class act who deserved better.

    His live performances at the Five Spot, with the equally short-lived Booker Little are essential listening.

    “Those who create history are exiled in their own era.” -James Lee
    Burke. How terribly true.

  5. Brian M Bacchus

    September 8, 2020 at 11:48 pm

    You missed Stormy Weather w Mingus and Ted Curson. One of his most amazing solos. ON Candid.

  6. Derrick

    December 29, 2020 at 2:55 pm

    No one has mentioned the absolutely Brilltastic tune Springtime from
    his very last recorded date, check it out.

  7. Robert

    June 22, 2021 at 5:20 pm

    The classic George Russell album on which Dolphy played is actually named Ezz-thetic.

  8. Alan Saul

    June 27, 2021 at 7:10 pm

    Dolphy recorded about 600 tracks, and at least 500 of them are required listening. Among the highlights not mentioned above are his alto solos on Pottsville USA and Miss Movement (, Feather (, Straight Ahead (, Moods in Free Time (, Dahomey Dance (, The Prophet (, The Way You Look Tonight (, Mendacity (, flute on Like Someone in Love (, dozens of other incredible flute and bass clarinet solos, and the whole Stuttgart concert (, Stockholm September 1961 (, Stockholm 231161 (, Strength with Unity (, and of course the unfortunately not yet issued Town Hall concert ( and

  9. Jon Arnold

    June 29, 2021 at 3:49 pm

    You missed Iron Man from the album of the same name – one of the most incendiary tunes in Jazz.

  10. Jonathan Breslau

    June 29, 2021 at 6:45 pm

    Dolphy’s solo on “Aisha” on Coltrane’s “Ole” is beautiful

  11. Boaz David Dror

    June 29, 2021 at 7:32 pm

    You also forgot “Warm Canto” from Mal Waldron’s The Quest, which is some of the best Dolphy out there. 😉

  12. Auro

    July 6, 2021 at 4:22 am

    I am with Brian: Stormy Weather with Mingus and Curson (Candid) is a lesson on what jazz can be.

  13. Igor Bieliński

    July 21, 2021 at 10:33 pm

    Do prefer Iron Man than Out to Lunch. Of course Aggression from Five Spot is suoernatural

  14. Brian Michel Bacchus

    July 22, 2021 at 1:58 pm

    Stormy Weather w Mingus and Ted Curson is a favorite.

  15. David Barkham

    October 14, 2021 at 3:33 am

    Mal Waldrn’s ‘The Quest’- Warp and Woof, Warm Canto, Fire Waltz

  16. Jerry Bauer

    December 9, 2021 at 3:02 pm

    Mal Waldron was also the leader of the Five Spot recordings

  17. Roger Klich

    December 9, 2021 at 6:22 pm

    I always enjoy his “Last Date” LP. Among his sidemen were Misha Mengelberg and Hans Bennink.

  18. michael Radice

    December 10, 2021 at 5:13 pm

    I think his solo on Aisha is one of the most overlooked solos. The opening phrases sing out pure love and tenderness and the closing phrases speak of longing and nostalgia. Just perfect.

  19. BooLaoHu

    March 4, 2022 at 8:50 am

    Man, great article. But are you deliberately trying to obfuscate this intel for the reader?

    The Ken McIntyre work is ‘Looking Ahead’, not ‘Looking Forward’. The George Russell work is on Ezz-thetic, not ezz-cetera.

    And that’s just in one paragraph! I didn’t bother to check correctness of the rest!

    • Todd Burns

      March 7, 2022 at 11:55 pm

      Thanks! We’ve updated the article to make sure we’ve gotten those right now. Appreciate you letting us know!

  20. Michael Morse

    November 24, 2022 at 5:54 pm

    Nothing from Last Date?

  21. Stan Przybylinski

    June 29, 2023 at 2:22 pm

    My favorite Dolphy tune is “17 West”

  22. Murray Gilkeson

    July 20, 2023 at 5:10 am

    Status Seeking

  23. Jeremy Dixon

    October 14, 2023 at 6:28 pm

    His clarinet solo on Warm Canton by Mal Waldron is great.

  24. Vince Bachmann

    December 14, 2023 at 12:00 pm

    Miss anne…epistrophy….red planet…Eric Dolphy has a feel like no other…but it goes without saying…bless you Eric for hours of enjoyment…

  25. Vince Bachmann

    December 14, 2023 at 12:10 pm

    Miss anne….epistrphy….red planet….Eric had a feel like no other…but that goes without saying…. bless you Eric…thank you for hours and hours of mind blowing sound…

  26. Chris Napierala

    April 17, 2024 at 5:35 pm

    Give yourself a gift: 2 days of Dolphy celebration in NYC on June 1-2. Not just repertory, though there will be some, but explorations of unheard scores, his secret jam sessions with Cecil Taylor (true thing), a revival of geri Allen’s incandescent Celebration Suite for Eric Dolphy (performed only once, 35 years ago), a symposium with James Newton, Reggie Workman and Nicole Mitchell…Oh, and Don Byron, Craig Taborn, Darius Jones, JD Parran, James Brandon Lewis, Eugene Chadbourne–for starters. Tickets and info:

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