The man who was billed later in his career as “The 500% Man” had a guitar sound like no other and one that influenced The Rolling Stones early in their career. This signature guitar sound was accompanied by what became known as “The Bo Diddley Beat” – “Shave ‘n’ a haircut, two bits”. The Crawdaddy Club in Richmond, which was the Stones’ spiritual home in early 1963 and the place where the Beatles and Decca Records came to see them, was named after a Bo Diddley song. But besides being such an influence on others Bo Diddley was one of the real characters who took influences from all over and moulded them into something unique.
“He’s the only white cat that ever got my rhythm.” – Bo Diddley speaking of Rolling Stone, Brian Jones, 1963
Bo Diddley, like his fellow Chess recording star Chuck Berry was pivotal to the development of popular music. The Bo Diddley beat is found on all sorts of early beat band records, laying the foundations for an era of music that was developed into what we have come to call Rock. From The Rolling Stones to The Quicksilver Messenger Service to George Michael, Guns N’ Roses and U2, all have used the Bo Diddley beat.
Like his Chess label-mates, Bo was all about singles and many are collected together on albums that include, His Best and Ride On/The Chess Masters. But do not overlook Bo Diddley is A Gunslinger – an album recorded in 1961 that includes ‘Doing The Crawdaddy’, which The Stones later turned into a 20-minute tour de force during their residency at Richmond’s Crawdaddy Club in 1963. Bo Diddley’s Beach Party is a live album that proves he was one of the greatest live rock and roll artists in his prime – avoid it at our peril!
“Michael Philip Jagger regularly petitioned Pye to release more Bo Diddley records. The stuttering beat spoke of sex the instant it started a little dance in my heart” – Andrew Loog Oldham.
He was born Elias Bates McDaniels on a Delta farm. Brought up in Chicago, having been adopted by his Mother’s cousin, his main interest was boxing, which is how he got his nickname. Like most black children of his era, he was well versed in gospel and church music; unlike most, he took violin lessons and studied classical music.
Diddley shifted gears after hearing John Lee Hooker. In the early ’50s, he began playing with his longtime partner, maraca player Jerome Green, to get what Bo’s called “that freight train sound.” Billy Boy Arnold, a fine blues harmonica player and singer in his own right, was also playing with Diddley when the guitarist got a deal with Chess subsidiary Checker in the mid-’50s (after being turned down by rival Chicago label Vee-Jay). His very first single, ‘Bo Diddley/I’m a Man’ (1955) was a double-sided monster. The A-side was soaked with futuristic waves of tremolo guitar, set to an ageless nursery rhyme; the flip was a bump-and-grind, harmonica-driven shuffle, based around a devastating blues riff. But the result was not exactly blues or even straight R&B, but a new kind of guitar-based rock & roll, soaked in the blues and R&B but owing allegiance to neither.
The single topped the R&B charts, establishing his reputation. Diddley stayed with Checker for the rest of the 50s and early 60s and had a string of R&B chart hits. He recorded other “classic” sides during this period including, ‘Who Do You Love’ (1956), ‘Hey Bo Diddley’ (1957) and ‘Mona (I Need You Baby)’ (1957). In 1958, ‘Say Man’ crossed over and got to No.20 in US Hot 100, in 1962, a version of Willie Dixon’s ‘You Can’t Judge A Book By Its Cover’ made No.48 in the Hot 100.
By 1958, Diddley had moved to Washington and started touring with rock ‘n’ roll package tours. His records became blues influenced, but like Chuck Berry, he was a potent mix of blues, rock and R&B. His appeal in America was on the wane after 1962, but in Britain, he had a hit with ‘Pretty Thing’ (the inspiration for naming the South London band) in 1963 and ‘Hey Good Lookin” in 1965. The Rolling Stones played plenty of Bo Diddley in those early days including, ‘Crawdaddy’,’Nursery Rhyme’, ‘Road Runner’, ‘Mona’ and ‘Bo Diddley’.
“Bo Diddley is my onstage character. I’m still Ellas, a laidback kind of guy to myself. If you’re not crazy on stage, people say you’re lazy” – Bo Diddley.
He may only have had a few hits, but as Bo Diddley sang ‘You Can’t Judge A Book By Its Cover’ – you can’t judge an artist by his chart success either, and Diddley produced greater and more influential music than all but a handful of the best early rockers. The Bo Diddley beat (bomp, ba-bomp-bomp, bomp-bomp) is one of rock & roll’s bedrock rhythms, showing up in the work of Buddy Holly, The Rolling Stones, and even pop-garage knock-offs like the Strangeloves’ 1965 hit ‘I Want Candy’. Diddley’s hypnotic rhythmic attack and declamatory, boasting vocals stretched back as far as Africa for their roots and looked as far into the future as rap. His trademark otherworldly vibrating, fuzzy guitar style did much to expand the instrument’s power and range. But even more important, Bo’s bounce was fun and irresistibly rocking, with a wisecracking, jiving tone, that epitomized rock & roll at its most humorously outlandish and freewheeling.
Diddley was never a top seller of the order of his Chess rival Chuck Berry, but over the next half-dozen or so years, he produced a catalogue of classics that rival Berry’s in quality. ‘You Don’t Love Me’, ‘Diddley Daddy’, ‘Pretty Thing’, ‘Diddy Wah Diddy’, ‘Who Do You Love?’, ‘Mona’, ‘Road Runner’, ‘You Can’t Judge A Book By Its Cover’ – all are stone-cold standards of early, riff-driven rock & roll at its funkiest. Oddly enough, his only Top 20 pop hit was an atypical, absurd back-and-forth rap between him and Jerome Green, ‘Say Man’, that came about almost by accident as the pair were fooling around in the studio.
As a live performer, Diddley was galvanizing, using his trademark square guitars and distorted amplification to produce new sounds which anticipated the innovations of ’60s guitarists like Jimi Hendrix. In Great Britain, he was revered as a giant on the order of Chuck Berry and Muddy Waters. The Rolling Stones, in particular, borrowed a lot from Bo’s rhythms and attitude in their early days, although they only officially covered a couple of his tunes, ‘Mona’ and ‘I’m Alright’. Other British R&B groups like The Yardbirds, The Animals, and Pretty Things also covered Diddley standards in their early days. Buddy Holly covered ‘Bo Diddley’ and used a modified Bo Diddley beat on ‘Not Fade Away’; when the Stones gave the song the full-on Bo treatment (complete with shaking maracas), the result was their first big British hit.
The British Invasion helped increase the public’s awareness of Diddley’s importance and ever since then he’s been a popular live act. Sadly though, his career as a recording artist, in commercial and artistic terms was over by the time the Beatles and Stones hit America. He would record with ongoing and declining frequency, but after 1963 he never wrote or recorded original material on par with his early classics. Whether he’d spent his muse, or just felt he could coast on his laurels is hard to say. But he remains a vital part of the collective rock & roll consciousness and before he passed away in 2008, occasionally reached wider visibility; via a 1979 tour with the Clash, a cameo role in the film Trading Places, a late-’80s tour with Ronnie Wood, and a 1989 television commercial for sports shoes with star athlete Bo Jackson.